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Survey study projects conducted by Mitra and Associates

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Survey study projects conducted by Mitra and Associates

Since its inception in 1983, Mitra and Associates has been carrying out more than 200 national as well as sub-national survey study projects. It has conducted the assignments especially in the following fields:

  • Population
  • Demography
  • Family planning
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Communication
  • Women and children’s development
  • Household income and expenditure
  • Agriculture
  • Rural development

Overall, the survey study projects include baseline and follow-up surveys, operation research, monitoring and evaluation studies under contract and in collaboration with national and international agencies/institutions. The relevant and major research/surveys conducted by this organization in recent years are as follows:

The (all 8) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs) 1994, 1997, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2011, 2014, and 2017

The brief description of the survey study project

The samples for all the BDHSs were nationally representative as well as covered the entire population residing in non-institutional dwelling units in the country. In fact, all the BDHSs surveys were based on a two-stage stratified sample of households (HHs). In the first stage, Mitra selected the Enumeration Areas (EAs) with probability proportional to the EA size. Then, after selecting the EAs, Mitra deployed the household listing teams to carry out the household listing operation in the EAs along with the required information.

In addition, the listing teams also drew a sketch map of the EA with the indication of each household. In the second stage of sampling, Mitra selected a systematic sample of 30 households on average per EA. It has provided statistically reliable estimates of key demographic and health variables for the country as a whole. These estimates covered urban and rural areas separately, as well as each of the seven divisions. The sample size for 1994, 1997, 2001, 2004, and 2007 was 10,500 households drawn from 341-361 clusters. In the 2011 and 2014 BDHSs, the sample size was 18,000 households drawn from 600 clusters.

The Bangladesh Maternal Mortality and Maternal Health Services (BMMS) Survey 2000-2001, 2011 and 2016

The brief description of the survey study project

Mitra used the multi-stage selection procedures to draw the samples in all the BMMSs. In fact, it parsed the frame into three domains: rural areas, urban areas, and other urban areas. The primary sampling unit (PSU) for the urban areas was the ward. The equivalent administrative unit outside of the urban areas was the union.  Rural unions formed the PSUs for the rural domain, while their urban wards formed the PSU for the urban domain.  In each selected urban PSU, two mohallas were selected, segmented, and a cluster was selected from each.

Therefore, the process in the rural domains was the same and served as the secondary sampling unit. Each selected mohalla and mouza was segmented into clusters and one of these clusters was selected from each selected mohalla and mouza. Finally, 65 households were randomly selected in each cluster to receive a household instrument. The sample size for 2001, and 2011 was more than 100,000 households which were drawn from 1618 clusters. Mitra and Associates covered 834 clusters, having about 55,000 households. In the 2016 BMMS, the sample size was more than 300,000 households which were drawn from 4752 clusters.  In fact, Mitra and Associates covered 2314 clusters, having about 150,000 households.

Matlab Health and Socioeconomic Survey (MHSSII, 2012-2015)

The brief description of the survey study project

As a matter of fact, this survey study was designed to learn the long-term impacts of the maternal health, family planning and child health project in Matlab. It was introduced into the Matlab Demographic Surveillance area in rural Bangladesh in the late 1970s, a later embankment project to reduce periodic flooding, and a microcredit program also. A multi-purpose data set was collected from a population of Matlab residents as well as former residents and added to a dataset constructed from Matlab historic Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) records.

However, the data was used to explore whether households exposed to each of these interventions and/or combinations of them have received long-term benefits. MHSSII followed the primary sample of 2,687 households from the 1996 MHSSI including all split-off or migrant households residing in Bangladesh. It also emphasized areas for which the intervention impacts have been demonstrated or hypothesized on four generations (the oldest and the youngest of which effectively were not directly exposed to the MCH/FP intervention).

Baseline and Endline Survey on NGO Health Service Delivery Program (NHSDP, 2013-14, and NHSDP, 2017)

The brief description of the survey study project

USAID awarded NGO Health Service Delivery Program (NHSDP) to Pathfinder International. The aim of this program was to provide assistance on the delivery of essential service package (ESP) through a network of local non-governmental organization (NGO) clinics.  Especially, it was based on the previous experiences as well as successes in NGO service delivery under the Bangladesh Smiling Sun Franchise Program (BSSFP) and National Service Delivery Program (NSDP). It incorporated new approaches to promote optimal health behaviors as well as community participation and would enhance local ownership of service delivery through institutional strengthening.

Therefore, the program continued to provide services to NHSDP urban program areas located in Dhaka City Corporation, Chittagong City Corporation, and the remaining City Corporations. It also provided services to the areas of District and Thana Municipalities as well as their respective comparison areas. It started on November 2013 and ended on June 2014. The objective of the NHSDP Urban Baseline and Endline surveys was to collect quantitative data on reproductive health, child health, limited curative care, TB and HIV/AIDS in NHSDP urban program areas.

Mayer Hashi II Baseline Survey, 2015 and Endline Survey, 2017

The brief description of the survey study project

Mitra implemented the Mayer Hashi II Family Planning survey study on the basis of the previous experiences of the Mayer Hashi (MH) 2009-2013 Project. It aimed to increase the use of Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (LAPMs) in low-performing areas.  MH II focused on a national scale-up of successful models, tools and approaches for promoting Long Acting and Reversible Contraceptive (LARC) and Permanent Method (PM) use as well as test new innovations. USAID funded the study and Measure Evaluation awarded it. The start date of the study was February 2015 and the end date was August 2015.

Hence, the principal objective of the surveys was to collect data on key outcome indicators from women in Phase I and Phase III districts. In this survey, Phase I districts served as the intervention area and Phase III districts served as the comparison area. Mitra conducted the surveys on 400 clusters from 46 districts of Bangladesh. Among these districts, Mitra selected 200 clusters from phase I and another 200 from phase III districts. Mitra selected the samples of 12004 households, 836 facilities, 1672 providers, and 2180 LAPM clients from those clusters.

Measurement of Obstetric Fistula and Pelvic Organ Prolapse: a Validation Study

The brief description of the survey study project

In particular, the survey study took place in two sub-districts—Baniachang and Nabiganj of Habiganj District. The aim of the study was to estimate the sensitivity as well as specificity of the BMMS 2016 maternal morbidity questions for identifying obstetric fistula (OF) and pelvic organ prolapsed (POP)cases. The start date of the study was July 14, 2016, and the end date was December 15, 2016. The objectives of the Maternal Morbidity Validation Study – Household survey were to:

  • Determine the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic survey instrument to identify obstetric fistula (OF)
  • Determine the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic survey instrument to identify pelvic organ prolapse (POP)
  • Estimate the prevalence of obstetric fistula, urinary incontinence, and POP in selected sub-districts

However, the Maternal Morbidity Validation Study–Household Survey has had three ultimate separate samples of target cases. The cases were the samples of:

  1. Seventy-eight positive cases of obstetric fistula-like symptoms
  2. One seventy-five positive cases for POP like symptoms
  3. Two thirty-four age-matched control cases

Impact Evaluation Surveys under the Reaching Out-of-School Children (ROSC) Project phase II in Bangladesh, 2015-2016

The brief description of the survey study project

The Reaching Out-of-School Children (ROSC) Project phase II, building on ROSC phase I is one of GOB interventions. It has played a key role in providing second chance primary education to out-of-school children in Bangladesh. In fact, the ROSC Unit (ROSCU) in the Directorate of Primary Education under the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education managed the project implementation. In addition, the World Bank provided financial and technical assistance to ROSC II project implementation. However, the World Bank awarded the Impact Evaluation Survey to Mitra.

World Food Programme Bangladesh Country Program (2012-2014) Outcome Study, 2014

The brief description of the survey study project

The main objective of the Country Programme (2012-2014) was to improve the long-term food security as well as nutrition of ultra-poor households in the poorest and most food-insecure rural areas as well as urban slums. The Country Programme (CP) planned to assist 4,025,000 people in 15 selected districts over the five years (2012-2016). The start date of the survey was July 2014 and tentative end date was October 2014.

Food For Peace (FFP) Baseline Survey, 2016

The brief description of the survey study project

Mitra carried out the FFP baseline survey in 11 districts – 8 in CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere) areas, 2 in World Vision (WV) areas, and 1 in HKI  (Hellen Keller International) areas. Therefore, Mitra chose the sample to employ a three-stage “cluster” sampling method (where Mitra defined a village as a cluster). There was also a stratification for each FFP project area. The three stages were the selections of:

  1. Clusters (villages)
  2. Households within villages
  3. Individuals within households

At the first stage, Mitra selected a total of 258 clusters, including 86 clusters from each area using probability proportional to size sampling (PPS).

Therefore, Mitra and Associates conducted the household listing indicating the households with either household with at least one child less than 5 years of age or the household with no child less than 5 years of age (these will be the eligible households). After completing the household listing, Mitra prepared two subframes for the second stage sampling – one frame was the households with at least one child less than 5 years of age and another frame was the household with no child less than 5 years of age.

Then, within each cluster, 20 households containing at least one child less than 5 years of age were sampled from a sub-frame of households with children less than 5 years of age. Similarly, 15 households containing no children less than 5 years of age were selected within each cluster from a sub-frame of households containing no children less than 5 years of age. Overall, Mitra selected 35 households from each cluster, yielding a sample size of 3,010 households for each of the three projects.

The 2010-2012 Household Survey of Employment Generation Programme for the Poorest (EGPP)-Baseline, follow-up and final follow-up

The brief description of the survey study project

The main objective of this survey study was to conduct three survey rounds at one-year intervals. It aimed to collect household level data via face-to-face interviews in all seven divisions of Bangladesh. In fact, Mitra conducted the survey for an impact evaluation of the Employment Generation Program for the Poorest (EGPP) Project. Therefore, the survey study covered both beneficiaries as well as non-beneficiaries of the project in three survey rounds:

  • I, the baseline survey, took place in November 2010 in a sample of 3,000 households
  • II, the mid follow-up survey, in November 2011, resurveying  1,000 households from the baseline sample
  • III, the final follow-up survey, in November 2012 in a sample of 3,000 households, including a panel component of 1,000 households surveyed in the previous rounds

Kishoree Kontha Endline Survey, 2014-2015 and Midline Survey, 2011

The brief description of the survey study project

Save the Children USA (SCUSA) Bangladesh Country Office partnered with IPA (Innovations for Poverty Action) and Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) implemented the three-year-long Kishoree Kontha program. Mitra designed the surveys to evaluate the impact of the development intervention Kishoree Kontha. It also evaluated the comparison of the effectiveness of different strategies for the empowerment of adolescent girls. In the midline survey, Mitra collected data using pen and paper whereas in the endline survey it collected data using tablets. The sample size of the midline and endline surveys were respectively:

  1. The number of households for the census: 73,000 and 76,953
  2. The number of girls for detailed interviewing: 11, 232 and 11,350

Quantitative Performance Evaluation Population-Based Sample Survey, 2014 For USAID Title II CARE SHOUHARDO II Program

The brief description of the survey study project

The USAID Office of Food for Peace (FFP) funded the SHOUHARDO II, one of the largest non-emergency food security programs in the world for 2010-2015. It operated in four major regions of Bangladesh – the North Char, the Mid Char, the Haor area, and the Coastal belt of Cox’s Bazaar. It started on September 2014 and ended on January 2015.

Follow-up Quantitative Survey of SHOUHARDO II Program, 2012

The brief description of the survey study project

Mitra employed multi-stage stratified random sampling in this survey study.  The targeted samples were constituted of 9,000 households drawn from eight strata. The four project regions and, within each, households located in villages where the program applied the MCHN/PEP and PM2A approaches. In the first stage of sampling, Mitra selected 25 villages (clusters) within each strata using Probability Proportional to Size sampling, giving a total number of villages of 200. In the second sampling stage, Mitra selected 45 households randomly from each village based on project household listings.

The SHOUHARDO II Baseline Survey, 2010

The brief description of the survey study project

The SHOUHARDO II baseline survey utilized a multi-stage cluster sample using population-based survey methods. The survey study utilized two levels of stratification. The first was a division of SHOUHARDO II into four regions – Coast, Haor, Mid Char and North Char. It reflected the whole program area in geographical distinction.

Therefore, the second level of stratification was into two areas termed MCHN/PEP and PM2A.  The sample was drawn in terms of selected households where 25 villages (clusters) were selected from each of MCHN and PM2A program areas of 4 regions. TANGO provided the technical support for sample drawing. Mitra selected a total of 200 villages using PPS sampling procedure. CARE provided the list of households by village, union, upazila, district, and region. CARE also provided the sampling frame (list of households by village) and Mitra selected forty-five (45) households randomly from that. In this way, Mitra completed PPS sample for 200 villages and selected 45 households randomly from each of 200 villages, which constituted a sample of 9,000 households.

PRIME NTF III Bangladesh Evaluation Survey, 2016

The brief description of the survey study project

In order to evaluate the NTF III (Netherlands Trust Fund) Bangladesh project, Mitra completed a baseline study. There were two parts in the study – face to face interview and the online survey. The start date of the face to face survey February 20, 2016, and the end date was April 20, 2016. Mitra conducted the online survey from Nov 20, 2016, to Jan 21, 2017.

In particular, the ITC (International Trade Centre) implemented the NTF III Bangladesh Project based in Geneva Switzerland. Dutch Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI) financially supported to implement the project. BASIS (Bangladesh Association of Software and Information Services) and in partnership with Dhaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry supported the project.

However, the NTF III Bangladesh project was the part of the Netherlands Trust Fund phase III (NTF III) program. It was on the actions taken in Bangladesh under the previous Netherlands Trust Fund phase II (NTF II) programme. The main purpose of the NTF III Bangladesh project was to improve the export competitiveness of the IT as well as ITES industry in Bangladesh. The objective of PRIME-ITC evaluation was to learn about the management practices, business performance, employment and export in the sector to improve the services of ITC in Bangladesh. It also assessed the impacts of NTF III Bangladesh project by comparing NTF III and non-NTF III firms.

PRIME NTF III Bangladesh Endline Evaluation Survey, 2017

The brief description of the survey study project

The NTFIII Bangladesh project is the part of the Netherlands Trust Fund phase III (NTFIII) program. In fact, the program was implemented on the actions taken in Bangladesh under the previous Netherlands Trust Fund phase II (NTF II) programme (NTF II Bangladesh). The main purpose of the NTFIII Bangladesh project is to improve the export competitiveness of the Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled services (ITES) industry in Bangladesh. In particular, Mitra and Associates was responsible for conducting the Endline data collection activities through face to face interviews with IT and ITES business owners or managers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, Mitra conducted the Endline Evaluation Survey through preparatory activities, pretesting, recruitment for interviewers, training, and fieldwork.